Among the products of construction ceramics can be distinguished:
• solid or perforated brick products, i.e.. bricks, clinker, roof tiles;
• interior and exterior cladding products, i.e.. Wall tiles, facade tiles;
• surface and floor products, i.e.. floor and road tiles;
• details, i.e.. stove tiles.
Technical properties determine the utility value of ceramic construction products (physical and chemical) and the structure of the products:
- products with a porous structure, about water absorption to 22%,
- products with a compact structure, about water absorption <12%,
- faience and stoneware products.
For technical properties, characterizing ceramic products, must be included: porosity, water absorption, flexural strength, hardness, resistance to abrasion and impact.
The porosity of the product determines its ability to allow gases and liquids to pass through it. Provides products with heat and sound insulation.
Water absorption (expressed as a percentage by weight), related to the porosity of the product, is one of the basic performance parameters and is generally considered a negative feature.
Earthenware products, which are used in construction, is obtained from clayey clay and after shaping, drying out, they are burned twice. Faience is used for the production of glazed ceramic tiles, sanitary ceramics: sinks, toilet bowls, bidets, sinks, scourers, etc..
Wall ceramic tiles - glazed faience tiles have the following parameters, in accordance with PN.
- water absorption by weight 10-22%,
- minimum hardness 3 (wg skali Mosh’a, max. is 10),
- considerable crushing strength,
- typical dimensions 15x 15, 15 x 20, 20 x 25 cm.
They are produced in a wide range of colors, from pastel to intensely dark. They are intended for lining walls inside buildings where the temperature is above 0 ° C.
Universal stoneware tiles (glazed and unglazed) have the following parameters:
- water absorption by weight 7%,
- abrasion not greater than 3 mm,
- typical dimensions 20 x 10, 30 x 20 cm.
They are intended for lining walls and floors of buildings. Depending on the resistance to negative temperatures, there are tiles intended for the interior of buildings as well as for the interior and exterior of buildings (frost-resistant). Glazed tiles in I. – IV abrasion class (depending on the abrasion resistance):
• class I - use in living quarters with little traffic, on which you walk in soft footwear, e.g.. bathrooms, bedrooms;
• class II - application in living quarters with medium traffic intensity, which are walked on in normal footwear, e.g.. rooms;
• class III - use in all rooms with medium traffic intensity, which are directly accessible from the outside;
• class IV - application in public utility places 0 increased intensity of pedestrian traffic, e.g.. hotele, garages.
For finishing walls and floors, lined with carpet tiles, ceramic strips with the same parameters are used, like glazed tiles and the typical dimensions of 5x 15, 5 x 20, 7 x 20 cm.
"Granit" carpet tiles have the following parameters:
- water absorption by weight 2%,
- high bending strength,
- resistance to acids and bases,
- typical dimensions 20 x 20, 20 x 30 cm.
These tiles are used for flooring and wall cladding inside and outside residential and public buildings.
Stoneware tiles and floor fittings with water absorption by weight 5% are acid-resistant, bases and oils. Due to their shape, square tiles are distinguished, rectangular, hexagonal, quadrilateral, pentagonal, concave (corner), plinth and corset.
Ceramic tiles should have good adhesion to the substrate. For this purpose, rib-shaped projections are provided on the mounting surface, strips, buttons or other forms. Additionally, there is information on the mounting surface of the board, for the year of manufacture.